As in Christianity there is the belief in the Trinity: God the Father, Jesus the Son and the Holy Spirit, Cosmos presents an alternative godhead: Time, Chance and Mutations. Here are the mathematical challenges to mutations recognizing that more than one simultaneous mutation is needed for the complexity of design we can perceive (for example - vision as mentioned previously) to occur:
- On average a mutation occurs one in every ten million (106) duplications of the DNA molecule. Our bodies contain nearly 100 trillion (1014) cells, so odds are we have a couple of cells with a mutated form of almost any gene.
- Odds of getting 2 mutations that are related to each other – 100 trillion (1014), but we need more mutations than that.
- Odds of 3 mutations in a row – one in a billion trillion (1021). Suddenly, the ocean isn't big enough to hold enough bacteria to make it likely.
- Odds of 4 related mutations – One in 1028. Suddenly the earth is not big enough to hold enough organisms to make that very likely. At this level, microbiologists gave up on the idea that mutations could explain why some bacteria are resistant to four different antibiotics at the same time.
Observations when mutations occur:
- Almost every mutation we know is identified by the disease or abnormality it causes. (For example, cycle cell anemia)
- Mutations typically tear down things and make matters worse.
- Mutations corrupt.
- Mutations are harmful at least 1,000 times more often than they are helpful.
It doesn't look like the X-Men will be showing up anytime soon. So which “godhead” is more plausible and purposeful?